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Periodontics _ Sun Dentistry.png


- Gum Treatment -

Periodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on preventing and treating periodontal  (gum) disease, an infection of the supporting structures around the teeth. Gum disease is generally caused by poor dental hygiene and the buildup of plaque and tartar on and below the gum line with a collection of bacteria causing inflammation in the gum tissue. The initial stage of gum inflammation, known as gingivitis, are characterized by swollen, red, and bleeding gums. At this stage, although gums are irritated, the teeth are still firmly holden in their sockets and no irreversible bone damage has occurred. However, if left untreated, it may spread to the bone surrounding the gum and develop into periodontitis. As more bone is damaged and lost at this stage, teeth become loose and eventually fall out.   

Risk factors

  • Poor dental hygiene

  • Smoking promotes the development of gum disease 

  • Hormonal changes in women due to pregnancy or oral contraceptives

  • Diabetes and immunodeficiency disorders

  • Poor nutrition

  • Genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease


  • Red or swollen gums

  • Tender or bleeding gums while brushing or flossing

  • Painful while chewing

  • Sensitive or loose teeth 

  • Gums that have pulled away from your teeth

  • Persistent bad breath or bad taste in mouth


Depending on the extent and severity, gum disease can be treated with nonsurgical and surgical procedures:

Nonsurgical treatments

  • Antibiotics: Oral antibiotics; Topical antibiotics include antibiotic oral rinse and antibiotic gel that can be inserted into periodontal pockets below the gum line.

  • Scaling and root planning: This is the deep dental cleaning process under local anesthesia.  It is usually completed over two or more appointments. 

Surgical treatments

  • Flap surgery: This procedure temporarily lifts your gum tissue off the teeth to clean the roots thoroughly. The bone may also need to be re-shaped if infection caused bone damage.

  • Soft tissue grafts: Also known as gum or gingival grafts, it is a surgical procedure to harvest a piece of tissue from the roof of the mouth or healthy gum and then place the tissue graft in the gum line to cover the exposed teeth roots and correct gum recession.  

  • Bone grafts: This is a dental procedure to replace the damaged bone with bone-grafting material If there is advanced bone damage surrounding the roots of the teeth. 

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